Mary Jo Spencer, CPNP is a Pediatric Nurse Practitioner with University of Minnesota Physicians where she has worked since 1996. Over the past two decades she has provided primary health care for children and adolescents experiencing adoption, foster care, residential treatment, incarceration, homelessness, and out-of-home placements. In addition, she has provided onsite clinical education for pediatric medical residents, medical students, nurse practitioner students, and nursing students. She has presented locally, nationally, and internationally on the health of children who have experienced foster care, prenatal exposures, or other out-of-home placements, almost all of whom are impacted by early childhood adversity, stress, and emotional trauma. Ms. Spencer currently provides clinical health care services in the Foster Care Program of the Adoption Medicine Clinic including Comprehensive Child Wellness Assessments, for children who have experienced foster care or prenatal exposures Ms. Spencer also provides assessments at the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Diagnostic Clinic at the Proof Alliance (formerly known as Minnesota Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – MOFAS) in St. Paul, MN.